{"ab":false,"abStatus":null,"abTestId":null,"abVariation":false,"abVariationAutomated":false,"absoluteUrl":"https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/articles/filmmakers-insurance-part-i","afterPostBody":null,"allowedSlugConflict":false,"analytics":null,"analyticsPageId":"6382883730","analyticsPageType":"blog-post","approvalStatus":null,"archived":false,"archivedAt":0,"archivedInDashboard":false,"areCommentsAllowed":true,"attachedStylesheets":[],"audienceAccess":"PUBLIC","author":null,"authorName":null,"authorUsername":null,"blogAuthor":{"avatar":"","bio":"","cdnPurgeEmbargoTime":null,"cosObjectType":"BLOG_AUTHOR","created":1540402219890,"deletedAt":0,"displayName":"Casey Budden","email":"","facebook":"","fullName":"Casey Budden","gravatarUrl":null,"hasSocialProfiles":false,"id":6384527471,"label":"Casey Budden","language":null,"linkedin":"","name":"Casey Budden","portalId":61352,"slug":"casey-budden","translatedFromId":null,"translations":{},"twitter":"","twitterUsername":"","updated":1540402219890,"userId":null,"username":null,"website":""},"blogAuthorId":6384527471,"blogPostAuthor":{"avatar":"","bio":"","cdnPurgeEmbargoTime":null,"cosObjectType":"BLOG_AUTHOR","created":1540402219890,"deletedAt":0,"displayName":"Casey Budden","email":"","facebook":"","fullName":"Casey Budden","gravatarUrl":null,"hasSocialProfiles":false,"id":6384527471,"label":"Casey Budden","language":null,"linkedin":"","name":"Casey Budden","portalId":61352,"slug":"casey-budden","translatedFromId":null,"translations":{},"twitter":"","twitterUsername":"","updated":1540402219890,"userId":null,"username":null,"website":""},"blogPostScheduleTaskUid":null,"blogPublishInstantEmailCampaignId":null,"blogPublishInstantEmailRetryCount":null,"blogPublishInstantEmailTaskUid":"DONE","blogPublishToSocialMediaTask":"DONE","blueprintTypeId":0,"businessUnitId":null,"campaign":"2338d37d-5cfd-4c6f-a30b-851e02933b68","campaignName":"Film Insurance","campaignUtm":"Film%20Insurance","category":3,"categoryId":3,"cdnPurgeEmbargoTime":null,"clonedFrom":null,"composeBody":null,"compositionId":381556,"contentAccessRuleIds":[],"contentAccessRuleTypes":[],"contentGroup":952267656,"contentGroupId":952267656,"contentTypeCategory":3,"contentTypeCategoryId":3,"contentTypeId":null,"created":1540353311674,"createdById":6181944,"createdTime":1540353311674,"crmObjectId":null,"css":{},"cssText":"","ctaClicks":null,"ctaViews":null,"currentState":"PUBLISHED","currentlyPublished":true,"deletedAt":0,"deletedBy":null,"domain":"","dynamicPageDataSourceId":null,"dynamicPageDataSourceType":null,"dynamicPageHubDbTableId":null,"enableDomainStylesheets":null,"enableGoogleAmpOutputOverride":false,"enableLayoutStylesheets":null,"errors":[],"featuredImage":"","featuredImageAltText":"","featuredImageHeight":0,"featuredImageLength":0,"featuredImageWidth":0,"flexAreas":{},"folderId":null,"footerHtml":null,"freezeDate":1540410482000,"generateJsonLdEnabledOverride":true,"hasContentAccessRules":false,"hasUserChanges":true,"headHtml":"<!-- START - Generated by ClassySchema.org on Tue, 20 Oct 2020 16:56:17 GMT -->\n<script type=\"application/ld+json\">\n{\n\t\"@context\": \"http://schema.org\",\n\t\"@type\": \"VideoObject\",\n\t\"name\": \"Are there different e&o considerations for a US-based filmmaker vs. a Canada-based filmmaker?\",\n\t\"description\": \"Are there different e&o considerations for a US-based filmmaker vs. a Canada-based filmmaker and if so, what are they? Front Row E&O get a quote: https://www...\",\n\t\"thumbnailUrl\": \"https://i.ytimg.com/vi/GiO-ZIyhP5E/mqdefault.jpg\",\n\t\"duration\": \"PT1M58S\",\n\t\"contentUrl\": \"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiO-ZIyhP5E\",\n\t\"embedUrl\": \"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E\",\n\t\"uploadDate\": \"2020-02-13\"\n}\n</script>\n<!-- END - Generated by ClassySchema.org-->","header":null,"htmlTitle":"Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1","id":6382883730,"includeDefaultCustomCss":null,"isCaptchaRequired":true,"isDraft":false,"isInstantEmailEnabled":true,"isPublished":true,"isSocialPublishingEnabled":false,"keywords":[],"label":"<span id=\"hs_cos_wrapper_name\" class=\"hs_cos_wrapper hs_cos_wrapper_meta_field hs_cos_wrapper_type_text\" style=\"\" data-hs-cos-general-type=\"meta_field\" data-hs-cos-type=\"text\" >Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1</span>","language":"en","lastEditSessionId":null,"lastEditUpdateId":null,"layoutSections":{},"legacyBlogTabid":null,"legacyId":null,"legacyPostGuid":null,"linkRelCanonicalUrl":"","listTemplate":"prox_frontrow/templates/blog/blog-listing.html","liveDomain":"www.frontrowinsurance.com","mab":false,"mabExperimentId":null,"mabMaster":false,"mabVariant":false,"meta":{"composition_id":381556,"author_email":"david@frontrowinsurance.com","author_username":"david@frontrowinsurance.com","author_user_id":116304,"attached_stylesheets":[],"post_summary":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n","has_user_changes":true,"last_edit_session_id":null,"last_edit_update_id":null,"html_title":"Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1","tag_ids":[949708924,6386637934],"topic_ids":[949708924,6386637934],"page_redirected":false,"personas":[],"placement_guids":[],"public_access_rules":[],"public_access_rules_enabled":false,"tweet_immediately":false,"unpublished_at":0,"use_featured_image":false,"post_body":"<span id=\"hs_cos_wrapper_post_body\" class=\"hs_cos_wrapper hs_cos_wrapper_meta_field hs_cos_wrapper_type_rich_text\" style=\"\" data-hs-cos-general-type=\"meta_field\" data-hs-cos-type=\"rich_text\" ><div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"allowfullscreen\" data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n<!--more--><h2>FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)</h2>\n<p><span style=\"background-color: #ffff04;\"><em><strong>Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p></span>","campaign_name":"Film Insurance","campaign_utm":"Film%20Insurance","enable_google_amp_output_override":false,"featured_image":"","featured_image_alt_text":"","link_rel_canonical_url":"","meta_description":"Fair Use permits filmmakers a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. How it relates to E&O insurance.","publish_immediately":true,"published_by_id":7915797,"published_at":1649437321223,"rss_body":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"allowfullscreen\" data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n<!--more--><h2>FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)</h2>\n<p><span style=\"background-color: #ffff04;\"><em><strong>Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p>","rss_summary":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n","blog_publish_instant_email_task_uid":"DONE","blog_publish_to_social_media_task":"DONE","head_html":"<!-- START - Generated by ClassySchema.org on Tue, 20 Oct 2020 16:56:17 GMT -->\n<script type=\"application/ld+json\">\n{\n\t\"@context\": \"http://schema.org\",\n\t\"@type\": \"VideoObject\",\n\t\"name\": \"Are there different e&o considerations for a US-based filmmaker vs. a Canada-based filmmaker?\",\n\t\"description\": \"Are there different e&o considerations for a US-based filmmaker vs. a Canada-based filmmaker and if so, what are they? Front Row E&O get a quote: https://www...\",\n\t\"thumbnailUrl\": \"https://i.ytimg.com/vi/GiO-ZIyhP5E/mqdefault.jpg\",\n\t\"duration\": \"PT1M58S\",\n\t\"contentUrl\": \"https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GiO-ZIyhP5E\",\n\t\"embedUrl\": \"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E\",\n\t\"uploadDate\": \"2020-02-13\"\n}\n</script>\n<!-- END - Generated by ClassySchema.org-->","layout_sections":{},"blog_post_schedule_task_uid":null,"scheduled_update_date":0,"header":null},"metaDescription":"Fair Use permits filmmakers a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. How it relates to E&O insurance.","metaKeywords":null,"name":"<span id=\"hs_cos_wrapper_name\" class=\"hs_cos_wrapper hs_cos_wrapper_meta_field hs_cos_wrapper_type_text\" style=\"\" data-hs-cos-general-type=\"meta_field\" data-hs-cos-type=\"text\" >Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1</span>","nextPostFeaturedImage":"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_763046476.jpg","nextPostFeaturedImageAltText":"Fair Use Misconceptions and Filmmaker E&O Insurance","nextPostName":"Fair Use Misconceptions and Filmmaker E&O Insurance Part II","nextPostSlug":"articles/filmmaker-insurance","pageExpiryDate":null,"pageExpiryEnabled":null,"pageExpiryRedirectId":null,"pageExpiryRedirectUrl":null,"pageRedirected":false,"pageTitle":"Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1","parentBlog":{"absoluteUrl":"https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/articles","allowComments":true,"ampBodyColor":"#404040","ampBodyFont":"'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif","ampBodyFontSize":"18","ampCustomCss":"","ampHeaderBackgroundColor":"#ffffff","ampHeaderColor":"#1e1e1e","ampHeaderFont":"'Helvetica Neue', Helvetica, Arial, sans-serif","ampHeaderFontSize":"36","ampLinkColor":"#416bb3","ampLogoAlt":"Front Row Insurance logo","ampLogoHeight":63,"ampLogoSrc":"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/front-row-logo.png","ampLogoWidth":175,"analyticsPageId":137640,"attachedStylesheets":[],"audienceAccess":"PUBLIC","businessUnitId":null,"captchaAfterDays":7,"captchaAlways":false,"categoryId":3,"cdnPurgeEmbargoTime":null,"closeCommentsOlder":0,"commentDateFormat":"medium","commentFormGuid":"7a447743-bbf2-4b55-a759-b405bf392a7d","commentMaxThreadDepth":3,"commentModeration":true,"commentNotificationEmails":["mike@frontrowinsurance.com","grant@frontrowinsurance.com"],"commentShouldCreateContact":true,"commentVerificationText":"","cosObjectType":"BLOG","created":1401900293000,"createdDateTime":1401900293000,"dailyNotificationEmailId":"952268096","dateFormattingLanguage":"en_US","defaultGroupStyleId":"","defaultNotificationFromName":"","defaultNotificationReplyTo":"","deletedAt":0,"description":"The Front Row Insurance Blog where you can learn and converse about all things entertainment insurance related.","domain":"","domainWhenPublished":"www.frontrowinsurance.com","emailApiSubscriptionId":283237,"enableGoogleAmpOutput":true,"enableSocialAutoPublishing":false,"generateJsonLdEnabled":false,"header":null,"htmlFooter":"<!-- DELTA-->","htmlFooterIsShared":false,"htmlHead":"<!-- Blog Schema by Front Row Insurance // https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/ -->\n\n<script type=\"application/ld+json\">\n {\n \"@context\": \"http://schema.org\",\n \"@type\": \"BlogPosting\",\n \"mainEntityOfPage\":{\n \"@type\":\"WebPage\",\n \"@id\":\"https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/articles/filmmakers-insurance-part-i\"\n },\n \"headline\": \"Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1\",\n \"image\": {\n \"@type\": \"ImageObject\",\n \"url\": \"\"\n },\n \"datePublished\": \"2018-10-24 19:48:02\",\n \"dateModified\": \"\",\n \"author\": {\n \"@type\": \"Person\",\n \"name\": \"') }}\"\n },\n \"publisher\": {\n \"@type\": \"Organization\",\n \"name\": \"FRONT ROW INSURANCE BROKERS\",\n \"logo\": {\n \"@type\": \"ImageObject\",\n \"url\": \"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/images/Logos/FR_logo_%5BConverted,-Inverted%5D.png\"\n }\n },\n \"description\": \"Fair Use permits filmmakers a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. How it relates to E&O insurance.\"\n }\n </script>\n <!-- End Schema --> \n<script type=\"text/javascript\">\n window._mNHandle = window._mNHandle || {};\n window._mNHandle.queue = window._mNHandle.queue || [];\n medianet_versionId = \"3121199\";\n</script>\n<script src=\"https://contextual.media.net/dmedianet.js?cid=8CU76IWTZ\" async=\"async\"></script>","htmlHeadIsShared":true,"htmlKeywords":["Front Row Insurance Blog"," entertainment blog"," film blog"," film insurance"," event insurance"," film festival blog"," production blog"," musicians blog"," "],"htmlTitle":"The Front Row View (entertainment insurance blog)","id":952267656,"instantNotificationEmailId":"952268061","itemLayoutId":null,"itemTemplateIsShared":false,"itemTemplatePath":"prox_frontrow/templates/blog/blog-post.html","label":"The Front Row View (entertainment insurance blog)","language":"en","legacyGuid":"469ce2ec-4dd9-442d-984a-3bab2557a02f","legacyModuleId":"164112","legacyTabId":137640,"listingLayoutId":null,"listingPageId":70026589976,"listingTemplatePath":"prox_frontrow/templates/blog/blog-listing.html","liveDomain":"www.frontrowinsurance.com","monthFilterFormat":"MMMM yyyy","monthlyNotificationEmailId":"952267981","name":"The Front Row View (entertainment insurance blog)","parentBlogUpdateTaskId":null,"portalId":61352,"postHtmlFooter":"<!-- OMEGA-->","postHtmlHead":"<!-- Blog Schema by Front Row Insurance // https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/ -->\n\n<script type=\"application/ld+json\">\n {\n \"@context\": \"http://schema.org\",\n \"@type\": \"BlogPosting\",\n \"mainEntityOfPage\":{\n \"@type\":\"WebPage\",\n \"@id\":\"https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/articles/filmmakers-insurance-part-i\"\n },\n \"headline\": \"Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1\",\n \"image\": {\n \"@type\": \"ImageObject\",\n \"url\": \"\"\n },\n \"datePublished\": \"2018-10-24 19:48:02\",\n \"dateModified\": \"\",\n \"author\": {\n \"@type\": \"Person\",\n \"name\": \"') }}\"\n },\n \"publisher\": {\n \"@type\": \"Organization\",\n \"name\": \"FRONT ROW INSURANCE BROKERS\",\n \"logo\": {\n \"@type\": \"ImageObject\",\n \"url\": \"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/images/Logos/FR_logo_%5BConverted,-Inverted%5D.png\"\n }\n },\n \"description\": \"Fair Use permits filmmakers a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. 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For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p></span>","postBodyRss":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"allowfullscreen\" data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n<!--more--><h2>FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)</h2>\n<p><span style=\"background-color: #ffff04;\"><em><strong>Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p>","postEmailContent":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n","postFeaturedImageIfEnabled":"","postListContent":"<span id=\"hs_cos_wrapper_post_body\" class=\"hs_cos_wrapper hs_cos_wrapper_meta_field hs_cos_wrapper_type_rich_text\" style=\"\" data-hs-cos-general-type=\"meta_field\" data-hs-cos-type=\"rich_text\" ><div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"allowfullscreen\" data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n<!--more--><h2>FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)</h2>\n<p><span style=\"background-color: #ffff04;\"><em><strong>Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p></span>","postListSummaryFeaturedImage":"","postRssContent":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n","postRssSummaryFeaturedImage":"","postSummary":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n","postSummaryRss":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n","postTemplate":"prox_frontrow/templates/blog/blog-post.html","previewImageSrc":null,"previewKey":"cFPMXXHO","previousPostFeaturedImage":"","previousPostFeaturedImageAltText":"","previousPostName":"Event Planning Insurance","previousPostSlug":"articles/event-planning-insurance","processingStatus":"PUBLISHED","propertyForDynamicPageCanonicalUrl":null,"propertyForDynamicPageFeaturedImage":null,"propertyForDynamicPageMetaDescription":null,"propertyForDynamicPageSlug":null,"propertyForDynamicPageTitle":null,"publicAccessRules":[{"ids":[],"type":"LIST_MEMBERSHIP"}],"publicAccessRulesEnabled":false,"publishDate":1540410482000,"publishDateLocalTime":1540410482000,"publishDateLocalized":{"date":1540410482000,"format":"medium","language":"en_US"},"publishImmediately":true,"publishTimezoneOffset":null,"publishedAt":1649437321223,"publishedByEmail":null,"publishedById":7915797,"publishedByName":null,"publishedUrl":"https://www.frontrowinsurance.com/articles/filmmakers-insurance-part-i","resolvedDomain":"www.frontrowinsurance.com","resolvedLanguage":null,"rssBody":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"allowfullscreen\" data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n<!--more--><h2>FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)</h2>\n<p><span style=\"background-color: #ffff04;\"><em><strong>Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p>","rssSummary":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe 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2020","smart_objects":null,"smart_type":"NOT_SMART","tag":"module","type":"module","wrap_field_tag":"div"},"child_css":{},"css":{},"deleted_at":1649437304888,"id":"module_15960847531069","label":"Blog Subscribe New Module 2020","module_id":33051772119,"name":"module_15960847531069","order":4,"smart_type":null,"styles":{},"type":"module"},"module_15965216980304":{"body":{"definition_id":null,"field_types":{"add_content":"richtext","enable_rich_text_module":"boolean"},"module_id":33156769794,"path":"/Coded files/Custom/blog/FrontRow2014/Basic Rich Text Box for Blog","smart_objects":null,"smart_type":"NOT_SMART","tag":"module","type":"module","wrap_field_tag":"div"},"child_css":{},"css":{},"id":"module_15965216980304","label":"Basic Rich Text Box for Blog","module_id":33156769794,"name":"module_15965216980304","order":5,"smart_type":null,"styles":{},"type":"module"},"name":{"body":{"title":"Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1"},"id":"name","label":"Title","name":"name","type":"text"},"post_body":{"body":{"html":"<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-wrapper hs-responsive-embed\" style=\"width: 100%; height: auto; position: relative; overflow: hidden; padding: 0; max-width: 560px; max-height: 315px; min-width: 256px; margin: 0px auto; display: block;\">\n<div class=\"hs-responsive-embed-inner-wrapper\" style=\"position: relative; overflow: hidden; max-width: 100%; padding-bottom: 56.25%; margin: 0;\"><iframe class=\"hs-responsive-embed-iframe\" style=\"position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; height: 100%; border: none;\" allow=\"accelerometer; autoplay; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture\" xml=\"lang\" src=\"https://www.youtube.com/embed/GiO-ZIyhP5E?controls=0\" width=\"560\" height=\"315\" frameborder=\"0\" allowfullscreen=\"allowfullscreen\" data-service=\"youtube\"></iframe></div>\n</div>\n<!--more-->\n<h1>FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)</h1>\n<p><span style=\"background-color: #ffff04;\"><em><strong>Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of <a href=\"/articles/fair-use-vs.-fair-dealing\" rel=\" noopener\">fair dealing (Canada), click here</a>.</strong></em></span></p>\n<p><em>“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.”</em> –Isaac Newton</p>\n<p>As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.</p>\n<p>For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?</p>\n<p><img src=\"https://cdn2.hubspot.net/hubfs/61352/shutterstock_233760787.jpg\" alt=\"Fair use\" width=\"300\" style=\"width: 300px; margin: 0px 0px 10px 10px; float: right;\">The legal doctrine of <strong>Fair Use</strong> permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.</p>\n<p>The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes <strong>fair use</strong>, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.</p>\n<p>Navigating <strong>fair use</strong> can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.</p>\n<p>There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: <strong>understand Fair Use</strong>, and purchase <a href=\"/sectors/e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Errors &amp; Omissions Insurance</a>. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.</p>\n<h2>Understanding Fair Use</h2>\n<p>You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes <strong>Fair Use.</strong> How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is <strong>Fair Use</strong> in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.</p>\n<ul>\n<li>What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “<strong>transformative</strong>” meets the criteria to be considered <strong>Fair Use</strong>. “<strong>Transformative</strong>” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.</li>\n<li>The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.</li>\n<li>How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.</li>\n<li>How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.</li>\n</ul>\n<p>Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. <a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">The second part of this article</a> will discuss some common <strong>fair use </strong>misconceptions.</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/filmmaker-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Part 2</a></p>\n<p>&nbsp;</p>\n<h3>RELATED LINKS:</h3>\n<p><a href=\"/errors-omissions-insurance-101\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O Insurance 101 &amp; How to Protect Your Film Project</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/eo-what-filmmakers-need-to-know\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: What You Need to Know</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/66030/film-and-tv-producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-cost\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Cost</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-errors-and-omissions-insurance-quote-are-you-being-offered-the-right-coverage-for-your-needs\" rel=\" noopener\">Are you paying for the coverage you need?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/24691/steps-to-obtain-errors-and-ommissions-insurance-for-films\" rel=\" noopener\">Steps to Obtain</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/protecting-your-script\" rel=\" noopener\">Producer Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-insurance-best-practices-when-reviewing-scripts\" rel=\" noopener\">E&amp;O: Reviewing Scripts</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/109689/distributor-s-errors-and-omissions-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Distributor Errors and Omissions</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/producers-eo-what-is-my-distributor-and-financer-asking-for\" rel=\" noopener\">Documentary E&amp;O Insurance</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/copyright-reports-use-them-to-minimize-the-potential-of-a-producers-eo-claim\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102723/e-o-insurance-how-much-of-your-productions-format-is-copyright-able\" rel=\" noopener\">How much of your film is copyright-able?</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/103438/e-o-acquire-proper-permission-before-you-eat-at-mcd-or-drink-a-c\" rel=\" noopener\">Copyright Infringements</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/10796/title-reports-who-needs-them-e-o-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">Title Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/26544/script-insurance-clearance-reports-what-are-they-and-why-are-they-important\" rel=\" noopener\">Script Clearance Reports</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/27709/film-eo-insurance-clearances-procedures-for-film-producers-part-1-of-3\" rel=\" noopener\">Clearance Procedures</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/107141/film-insurance-e-o-claims-made-policies-vs-occurrence-policies\" rel=\" noopener\">Claims Made vs. Occurrence</a></p>\n<p>Fair Use</p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/broadcasting-film-insurance\" rel=\" noopener\">False Light Accusations</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/articles/bid/102480/eo-insurance-for-film-and-tv-the-value-of-a-lawyer\" rel=\" noopener\">The value of a lawyer</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/how-can-you-make-a-film-like-the-social-network-without-getting-permission-from-mark-zuckerbergyour-blog-post-title-here\" rel=\" noopener\">To get or not get permission: The Social Network</a></p>\n<p><a href=\"/articles/bid/107690/obtaining-e-o-insurance-for-your-film-production-and-preventing-litigation\" rel=\" noopener\">A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&amp;O insurance and preventing litigation</a></p>"},"deleted_at":1649437304888,"id":"post_body","label":"Blog Content","name":"post_body","type":"rich_text"}}}

Fair Use and E&O Insurance for Filmmakers - Part 1

FAIR GAME? - A FAIR USE PRIMER FOR DOCUMENTARY FILMMAKERS (Part 1)

Applicable to US-based producers only. For a discussion of fair dealing (Canada), click here.

“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.” –Isaac Newton

As a documentary filmmaker, you’ll likely need to make use of copyrighted materials at some point in your production. Indeed, it’s almost impossible to avoid: film clips, music and archival interviews are indispensable tools for lending depth, color and authority to your production. However, securing the rights to such materials can be difficult, prohibitively expensive and, most importantly, fraught with potential danger if the rights holders feel that their copyright has been infringed.

For example: you’re making a documentary about Hammer Horror films of the ‘50s and you use a short clip of Christopher Lee baring his fangs. You haven’t obtained permission. Will you be sued?

Fair useThe legal doctrine of Fair Use permits creators a degree of freedom to incorporate copyrighted works of others into a new creative work. The law recognizes that the rights of copyright holders to enjoy the profits of their creations must be balanced with the rights of creators to enjoy freedom of expression and build upon past works in the creation of their own.

The problem that can sometimes occur is that it can be very difficult to define what constitutes fair use, and rights holders can be aggressive in defending their copyright.

Navigating fair use can be a challenging proposition. It is particularly important to the documentary filmmaker due to the fact that documentarians usually need to use more copyrighted material than, say, the director of a period piece.

There are two important things that you can do as a documentary filmmaker to keep your production safe: understand Fair Use, and purchase Errors & Omissions Insurance. The first will help you avoid being sued; the second will help protect you if you are.

Understanding Fair Use

You want to use a short clip of music or film in your documentary. You might have a limited budget. Traditional wisdom dictates that every piece of copyrighted material needs to be cleared and paid for, but this may not be the case if you can argue that your use of the clip in question constitutes Fair Use. How do judges determine if the use of a given clip is Fair Use in any given situation? The following criteria are considered.

  • What purpose the material is used for. Courts generally hold that a use of copyrighted material which is “transformative” meets the criteria to be considered Fair Use. “Transformative” means that the material is made part of a new creative work, for a purpose and context which are different than the original.
  • The nature of the source material. Factual, non-fiction source material which was created for an academic or educational purpose, with the intention of being strictly informative in nature, is less likely to give rise to a copyright claim if it is presented appropriately.
  • How much of the source material was used. The more of the original work is used, the more likely a lawsuit becomes. For example, musicians are more likely to encounter a problem using a lengthy musical phrase copied from a prior artist than they would be using a single breakbeat or horn blast which may no longer be recognizable as part of a prior creative work.
  • How the use of the source material impacts its value. If the rights holder can argue that their profits, potential profits or the integrity of their brand have been impaired by another’s use of their material, it may provide grounds for litigation. For example, a documentarian making a film about Miles Davis might get away with showing a brief clip of Miles playing, but reproducing an entire 15-minute live performance of him is likely going to attract a lawsuit.

Armed with this information, you might think that these rules are just common sense, and with an abundance of caution a prudent filmmaker might be able to avoid the possibility of a lawsuit. However, the reality is not so simple. The second part of this article will discuss some common fair use misconceptions.

Part 2

 

RELATED LINKS:

E&O Insurance 101 & How to Protect Your Film Project

E&O: What You Need to Know

E&O: Cost

Are you paying for the coverage you need?

Steps to Obtain

Producer Errors and Omissions

E&O: Reviewing Scripts

Distributor Errors and Omissions

Documentary E&O Insurance

Copyright Reports

How much of your film is copyright-able?

Copyright Infringements

Title Reports

Script Clearance Reports

Clearance Procedures

Claims Made vs. Occurrence

Fair Use

False Light Accusations

The value of a lawyer

To get or not get permission: The Social Network

A production lawyer's guide to obtaining E&O insurance and preventing litigation

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